Direct Stream Digital (DSD) – the technology explained

— Take a look at the comparisons between the evolving technologies of DSD and PCM and how they have been implemented in the Zodiac Platinum —

 
Santa Monica, CA, June 18, 2014
 
Direct Stream Digital
Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an audio format developed by Sony and Philips for the Super Audio CD system (based on ideas initially described in a 1954 patent). The technology was then later developed by Playback Designs and pioneered the transfer of DSD files over USB connections.
 
PCM is usually 16-bit to 24-bit (CD standard is 16-bit and 44.1kHz) whereas DSD is commonly 1-bit or in some cases 8-bit and has a sampling rate of 2.8224MHz. The output from a DSD recorder alternates between levels representing ‘on’ and ‘off’ states, and is a binary signal (called a bitstream).
 
To minimize quantization errors during the ADC process, the DSD format utilizes noise shaping algorithms (filters), which allow shifting of the quantization distortion up to ultrasonic values, frequencies far outside the human range of hearing. DSD bitstreaming allows the SACD players to be made with a simple 1-bit design and using a low-order analog filter during the DAC process. Although the SACD format achieves a dynamic range of 120dB for all frequencies in the range of human hearing (20Hz to 20kHz) and provides an extended frequency response up to 100kHz, most players in the market offer a maximum of 80-90kHz.
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The Hills Come Alive with Antelope Audio and “The Earth Harp”

Artist and Instrument Craftsman William Close Turns to Antelope to Capture Unique and Unprecedented Recording, Using Natural Valley as the Instrument’s Resonating Chamber

 
 
Ever since his art school days in the late 1990′s while attending the prestigious Chicago Art Institute, William Close pursued his dream of building and performing with unique, handmade instruments whose sounds have never been heard anywhere in the world. Now, The Earth Harp, his masterpiece instrument creation of unprecedented physical scale and sonic beauty, has been captured in astonishing fidelity in a brand new recording — thanks to the digital clocking and conversion technology of Antelope Audio.
 
His new album with The Earth Harp Collective, Behind the Veil, captures the authentic sound of this spectacular instrument — from its lavish root notes to its rich harmonics and heavenly overtones. Close attributes the success of the recording in large part to Antelope Audio’s new Rubicon A to D converter, which was used as the primary mastering device, and its Orion³² multi-channel interface, which was used during playback. “I’ve never heard The Earth Harp sounding so good on a recording,” he says. “The instrument has so many beautiful harmonics and overtones, and many times these are lost in the process. The Antelope equipment was awesome and helped us finally achieve a true representation of how The Earth Harp actually sounds.”
 
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オーディオマクタークロックの基本とアプリケーションノート―パート2

What devices need clocking?
 
In a simple system featuring one audio interface with built-in mic preamps connected to a computer-based DAW, the interface clocks the DAW since the most clock-critical element of the audio chain is the A/D converter, as that’s built in to the interface. If you were to add an external digital device to the equation (reverb, multi-effects processor etc), it should be configured to work as a clock slave to the interface.
 
Following that logic, even in bigger and more complex studios, it’s generally best to use an A/D as the master clock. If there’s more than one of these you’ll need to decide which one to use as the master, and everything else will have to be slaved to that. It’s quite possible that there will be audible differences between various configurations, because most A/Ds will perform slightly differently when configured as clock master and slave.
 
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オーディオマクタークロックの基本とアプリケーションノート―パート1

Trinity_Master_Clockなぜクロックが必要なのか?
アナログシグナルをデジタル化するためにはシグナルを精密、正確な間隔でリピートしなければなりません。マスタークロックはそのタイミング情報を提供、波形をアナログシグナルとして正確に再構成させます。(サンプル値として、周波最高値の2倍以上のオーディオシグナルを対象とした場合)
クロックは各個別サンプルが録音されるべきか、再生されるべきかを判断します。(ワードクロック)
 
クロックのタイミングが変動する場合、オーディオサンプルは再生されるか、誤ったタイミングに音の歪み、ジッター、エイリアシングとなり録音されます。
不正クロッキングの産物と言えるものは複数存在しますがジッターは不正ウェーブフォームであり明らかに明瞭な音響のエラーと言えます。
 
その他のクロックにはビットクロックがあります。これは唯一オーディオデータが通過するAES、S/PDIF、ADATのようなシリアルデータインターフェイスに使われます。ビットクロックは受け取り側のデバイスが各データビットの停止、再開を追跡し破損データの受け取りがないことを確実にします。
 
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ハイエンドオーディオA/D、D/Aコンバーター、及びマスタークロックデザインの重要要素

Igor Levin
Here is an interview with Igor Levin published by Audio Times in 2012. Igor answers questions about some critical aspects of A/D and D/A converters and master clocks design.
 
Irrespective of the sampling rate, what are the really important elements within successful A/D and D/A converters designs?
About 20 years ago when I built my first D/A converter I had also to build a clock for it. At that time, clocks were not something that you just go out and buy. So I built my first clock for my first D/A converter. People liked the converter, but what they really appreciated was the clock. This was when I realized the importance of the stable clocking reference for digital audio.
 
I still believe the accurate clock is the basis for successful conversion. In fact as the chips get better and the circuit artifacts we struggled to overcome fall away, the significance of good clocking has come to the fore as never before. Today I would say it amounts to at least 75% of the overall sound. Of course there is a list of other important factors such as proper layout, stable power supply, the analog-based volume control etc.

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